A very common emergency involves some sort of “wound”
Heavy Bleeding from Wounds:
There are different kinds of wounds that may cause bleeding. This list may help you describe the wound clearly when you call 911.
Abrasions or scrapes are caused by rubbing or scraping.
Lacerated wounds have rough or jagged edges.
Puncture wounds are produced by objects that are pointy.
Incised wounds are caused by a sharp cutting edge, such as a knife or razor.
An Avulsion tears a whole piece of skin and tissue loose or leaves it hanging as a flap.
Amputation- a body part such as a leg or arm is completely cut through or torn off.
Crush injuries can result when a part of the body is caught between heavy pieces of equipment or machinery.
What to look for:
A lot of bright-red or dark-red blood is coming out fast from a cut or wound. The victim may be hurting a lot. The black pupils in the center of the eye have gotten big. Skin feels damp, cool and wet. Skin looks blotchy. Heart beat or pulse is fast but weak. Breathing is also fast, like a runner panting. Victim might throw up. Victim is thirsty. Victim may not know what’s going on. Victim may be weak and can’t get up. Victim may be woozy, even sleepy, may even faint.
What should you do first? Call 911
Until EMS arrives you should:
Have the victim lie down. If there’s no broken bone suspected, elevate the bleeding part if it’s an arm or leg. Keep the person warm with a blanket. Wash your own hands and then clean the wound of any large pieces of dirt or debris. Put on disposable latex gloves if you have them.
Cover the wound:
Make a pad of clean and thick cloth. Use gauze from a first-aid kit. If you don’t have gauze, use a clean undershirt, towel, bed sheet or handkerchief.
Put it over the place where the blood is coming from. Make sure it covers the entire wound. Press your hand right over the dressing. (Anything put over a wound is called a “dressing”)
When the dressing gets soaked with blood, replace with another dry, clean, padded cloth. Press down for 5 minutes. If the bleeding doesn’t’t stop, hold down on a pressure point. Pressure points of the arm are on the inside of the arm just above the elbow and just below the armpit. Pressure points of the leg are just behind the knee and in the groin. Press down on the pressure point only for a few minutes. Don’t stop pressing on the wound. Press down on both the pressure point and the wound. When bleeding starts to slow down, let up on the pressure point. When bleeding stops altogether, you can then make a bandage. This keeps the dressing in place. If you don’t have first-aid tape, use a necktie, belt or strips of cloth-anything that will hold the dressing over the wound. Keep the person quiet and lying still. Reassure the person.
If the bone is sticking out of the wound, DO NOT press on the top of the wound. Instead, press down around it.
Wounds of the neck:
Tell the 911 operator if the person can’t move arms, legs or has back or neck pain. Until help arrives, if breathing stops, use CPR. DO NOT try and move the person!
Don’t try to move anything sticking out of the chest. Make sure victim is breathing. Try to keep the dressing over the wound snug to prevent air from escaping. Cover the dressing with aluminum foil or plastic wrap. Tape the wound shut with adhesive tape. Do NOT give the victim anything to eat or drink and DO NOT panic!
Scalp (head) wounds:
These cuts or scrapes on the top of the head may bleed a lot.
Bandage carefully. Check for other injuries of the head at the same time. If the victim is dizzy, can’t remember what happened or faints, call 911 immediately.
Bandage the wound in place with an elastic roller bandage which goes around the head. You can also use a towel or another object that ties to keep the bandage secure.
Get medical help right away.
Don’t let the victim touch or rub their eye. Don’t try to remove the object yourself. Tell the person that both eyes must be covered to protect the injured eye. Cut a hole into a thick dressing or folded cloth. Never leave the victim alone, as the victim may panic with both eyes covered. Until you can get to help: Flood hurt eye with clean running water for at least 30 minutes. Hold eyelid open pouring water slowly over eyeball inner corner. Let the water run out from the outer corner.
If it’s just a “black eye” apply an ice-cold compress to the affected eye for 10 minutes. Don’t press on the eye. If they are wearing contact lenses, do not try to remove them.
Call 911 right away. Check breathing. If breathing stops, start CPR
If the neck or back is hurt, don’t move person. If neck or back isn’t hurt, lay the person down. Loosen clothing. Turn victim onto their side to prevent choking in case they start vomiting. Don’t leave victim alone, do NOT give them anything to eat or drink.
First degree is minor and it’s simply redness
Second degree is moderate and includes redness and blistering
Third degree is critical and involves deep tissue damage.
Fourth degree burns is deep tissue damage and may include bone.
If the burn is larger then the size of your hand, activate 911 immediately.
Stick burned area in cold water (not ice). Put cold compress on burn until pain begins to go away. Cover burned area with a clean dressing. Then bandage loosely. Elevate burned area. Watch for signs of infection (swelling, pain, red streaks)
Don’t use antiseptic sprays, butter, ointment or any other home remedies. Don’t try to remove stuck on clothing. Don’t try to break blisters. Don’t try to apply pressure to any burned area(s). Don’t use ice water to cool. Don’t touch a burn or breathe on it.
Brush away any chemical powder. Take off all clothing with chemicals on it. Put victim under shower for 10 minutes. A garden hose or bucket of water suffices too.
Blot victim dry with clean towel. Cover burn with clean bandage. Do not use sprays, ointments or antiseptics.This guide covers the basics for the most common types of injuries that require first aid. This doesn’t substitute a professional training. It’s always a great idea to take a CPR class at least one time in your life. CPR had been mentioned several times. It’s too complex to explain just in words. A CPR class teaches you how to do simple life saving techniques on all ages ranging from birth to older adult. Your nearest local Red Cross chapter would be a great place to start to get some more information.