How many know the state that education is in in developing countries such as Nigeria? My essay will outline the conclusion that Dr. Tooley of the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne has with the rise of private schools, the condition and argument of them and some of the plan to give all children a chance of education by 2015 by the UN and the problems they will face in light of this goal. Including a basis by which they can and will hopefully find helpful.
In Dr. Tooley’s judgment in researching private education end entrepreneurship in developing countries, he stated that private schools are found considered to be a threat to government free-schools. Because if the government schools can’t get it right then it means international agencies are misdirecting their billions of money over the years. And that they are threatening academics “ideological purity” and belief in state education while the poor take it upon themselves to give their children the education they feel is deserved. Showing that 65 to 70 percent of poor children attend a private school.
In Lagos, Nigeria there are those who dispute his findings. A few are Keith Lewin of The Center for International Education, Sussex University and Nigerian State Administrator Mary Taimo Ige Iji. Keith Lewin believes that the private sector will not have an “obvious incentive to reach out to the cash-poor rural areas or to HIV orphans.” because a service is being provided where government fails. He remarks: “Do we really believe that unregulated, unlicensed organizations, which aren’t accountable to anybody expect their own proprietors, which have no governance structure, which are only part of the community in the sense that the person running them is part of the community, are the best way forward? I think not!” As for Mary who says parents are ill-informed states: “Some of them choose private schools because they are near their home. But the most important point is fake status symbol. . .the want to be seen as rich parents, supposedly better, which are poor in facilities,” The facilities are indeed poor but only because you can’t compare the to government schools that have qualified teachers.
Other remarks by faculty to why after so many students of public schools did not attend for a few years were informed that parents were sending their children to private school, they laughed saying “parents in slums don’t value education”, “They’re illiterate and ignorant,” To them those people can’t afford private education.
Despite the ridicule there is enough evidence to support the positive effect of private schools run by individuals of poor communities. Regardless of cost to families enrolling their children. According to UNICEF ninety percent of the people live on $2 a day or $50 a month. Most private schools charge $10 a month per child with minus half of school children who do attend hardly get the attention needed in order to learn. Tooley polled a sample of 4,000 school-age children and calculated that private schools have shown a fifteen percentage point higher grading in both math and English than government schools. 56 percent for private schools and 41 percent for government. Even with Nigeria behind the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa in Educational Spending. That being less than four percent of gross domestic income. With this the poor are not going to be patient, they are going to make up for state failure in education. So they build their own schools. Most are opened by a member of the community who sees the want of the parents. Hearing such complaints as, “In the public school they do no teach very well and even though we are poor we prefer to send our children to private school because we want our children trained for the future,” Additionally many female children are more protected from lurking abductors in attending a near by private school. Like the Ken Ade Private School of Lagos, Nigeria.
In this school each age group is separated to learning levels; Nursery to Primary 6. Where fees are $4 a month per child or 2,200 Naira. Some go to school free because they are orphans. The owner wanted to help parents with disillusions of government schools. Though sadly, along with many other private schools in Nigeria, this school will be asked to close down with a six month given stay of execution according to AFED or the Association of Formidable Education Development.
Out of nine-hundred-eight schools found in Tooley’s two year research across Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and India, 35% were private schools. Private schools are becoming rapid. And the Oxfam Education report hasn’t been unaware of their existence. In fact they believe that the “lower cost pivotal sector has emerged to meet the demands of poor households,” and that there is, “a growing market for private schools among poor residences,” stating, “private education is a far more pervasive fact of life than is often recognized,” In the 35percent of private schools found in the study of Dr. Tooley’s 918 researched schools, 37percent were unrecognized by government. And in those private schools 65% of the attending students were of low-income.
What is the reason so many low-budgeted school-age children go to private school instead of the free of charge government licensed and certified schools? Because of the quality of education and the quality of the educational environment provided by faculty. Tooley documented the event when he visited a government school that had time to prepare for his scheduled arrival. Fortunately they had done no such preparation. Giving a clear look into the daily outcome of the school.
The children did little, a teacher could be found asleep while another read a paper. In Grade One there were ninety-five students; a combination of three classes due to long term teacher absenteeism. There could be seen outside one classroom door, a teacher doing nothing. Amazingly no faculty member class could be found embarrassed of this. In another class no one responded to a girls query as to what the days’ lesson it was. Eventually she was replied with a cur answer that it was mathematics. This is the school were many parents had removed their children for a few years, as mentioned earlier, in consequence to teachers strikes of withheld pay. Though currently five hundred are enrolled with only a handful of that being some of the students returning. The ones still not there are in private school.
With all this and so many unrecognized private schools not appearing in government statistics the Untied Nations Summits goal of “Education for All’ by 2015 may be quite the undertaking with their figure of half of the school age children attending school. But if they took into consideration the unrecognized private schools and Tooley’s findings that only a quarter of school-age children are not in school, the goal would be easier obtained that thought. Also there is only one half of teaching activity and one third of teachers’ absences. Schools can be closed for months at a time for irresponsible teachers. Teachers that are drunk, asking children to do domestic chores including caring for babies. It is rare that teachers are fired. Let’s not forget that bribes can be found with the state systems, and that there is a lack of teachers’ commitment and misdirection of resources. This gives much more reason for parental concern. Private schools are not considered part of the solution however to the educational crisis because they “charge fees,” and the government questions how high quality provision could exist in private schools serving the poor mainly because levels of resource are low. Then they raise the concern that the impact of private provision on state education carried danger of undermining the government schooling system because poor parents support private education. This is why staff at private schools only gets paid a comparable fourth of the wages as the staff at government schools. The position private school takes now wasn’t always the case. In 1960 the government wanted private schools to be regulated. In 1890, 85 percent of schools were private or privately owned until colonial government decided otherwise.
So how should the UN base their course of action to obtain their goal of “Education for All” by 2015 while taking in the truth of the existence of private schools and the more realistic number of children not in school? Order and the consideration of unintended consequences and the importance of institutions. Parents need solutions urgently for their children and cannot wait. Private schools for the poor are a signal for a rethink by the international development community. Order and the consideration of unintended consequences and such I can explain since they are key factors in how this should be handled and considered by the UN.
Spontaneous order. It is as Adam Ferguson said, “Many human institutions are the result of human action, but not of human design.” .With knowledge that order has been in the minds of political thinkers and philosophers for a prolonged periods of time it is easy to comprehend that for our day and age it is the referee between people. Before now it was a concept of stability over looked by a high power. We still have order just not as rigid as it once was. Allowing a variety of people to co-exist. Explaining the troubles with the poor and not poor peoples having contrary views on future education. This concept was brought to light by Bernard de Mandeville in 1714 in a book entitled The Fable of Bees. Describing the workings of “private vices” and their relation to “public benefits” of communities. Stating that with evolving human institutions you permit individuals to serve others. As not seen in developing countries thus far. It was with Adam Smith, David Hume, and Adam Ferguson that the Scottish Enlightenment played the idea into being applied to a whole range of human institutions. Such as a Commerce, law, language, human morality, morals and customs. Smith argued that morals evolved slowly in his theory of Moral Sentiments of 1759. Principles were eventually accepted by communities to allow them to flourish and prosper, he mentioned.
Institutions are divided into three’s: natural, artificial, and social. They are regular and orderly. They cannot be altered or reconstructed at will because both the human mind and society evolved together according to Australian thinker F.A. Hayek.
A free society is orderly not because people are told what to do but because it allows individuals to pursue their own needs while meeting others needs. The behavioral patterns of people happen due to society accepting those patterns initially.
Rules allow a complex social order of cities and economics to function. It’s not how to do it; it’s what should be done.
The moral Framework is always changing with new rules as they are set. Functioning better the social order. But we can’t say beforehand which rules to use because of the stage of society. Trail and error is required.
Social rules are in three groups: human designed, tacit (air play) knowledge, and observed and written rules. The second and third have the power to create complex order. Using more knowledge than the human mind can hold.
Complex and social orders need freedom. The information and knowledge that work them can’t be spread out by central authority. Using the first of the three groups can’t change the second and third because the end amount of human knowledge allows people of society to co-exist. To bring them (us) to the level of prosperity and population we currently live with. As seen in the Soviet Empire. Traditional morality, justice, and fair play were attacked by government while they kept western economics living standards fro falling below subsistence levels. Some of this being true for parts of the UN and Sub-Saharan Africa. Freedom helps achieve spontaneous order. As is the distribution of power among citizens. Experimenting with rules and morals that govern behaviors.
The hard fact of a free society is that all has to consider the needs of others. Coordinating conflicting desires. Opposite to achieving one’s goals at another’s expense. This is what we need to look beyond in underdeveloped countries. Watching and listening is only a small part; interaction with multiple peoples permit’s the order of society to run. All beliefs can benefit from this. They will be interdependent. Resolving peacefully their differences. Religious turmoil is one of many results of mechanical transmission of moral values. For Lagos, Nigeria it is educational turmoil. And still many societies have never known Freedom.
Let’s not forget law. Instead of arbitrary law, it should be in the hands of judges. Seeping out from it to society and to every person. Respected for its force and basis on grown up rules and its values and spirit. Compared to over-governments imposing controls. As should be the matter with some of issues facing the education debate.
Now in unintended consequences, the law of it rarely is described. It is the actions of people and of government. Clearly seen in the developing countries mention earlier in Tooley’s research. It is persistently un-anticipating effecting. The concept of it (unintended consequence) is best put as the “invisible hand”. A famous metaphor in social science. Being for example and individual out for only himself “is led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.”
There are five sources of unintended consequence: ignorance, error, “imperious immediacy of interest”, and two basic values. (Robert K. Merton, American sociologist, 1936). The third referring to the ignored unintended effects of an individuals’ dire want of a particular consequence. In the fourth and fifth source, “basic values” the Protestant Ethic of hard work and asceticism are as one of two ideal candidates of example. Merton wrote that this “paradoxically leads to its own decline though the accumulation of wealth and possessions.” The second is Merton’s “self-defeating prediction”. The instances like when the public predicts social development proves false. Finding that the prediction changes the course of history.
The law of unintended consequences provides basis for the criticism of government programs. Making some programs unwise even with goals.
Now the reason why private schools should matter in he case of educational goals.
An important building block to the constant rise of standards of living is the development of institutions. Composed of both formal (laws) and informal (social normalcy) rules of society’s creation. Though the definition of “institution” as a term is unclear, the queries we ask in relation to it are in regards to the kinds of characteristics it has that are growth enhancing. Just as in paying for a service before hand but not getting what you asked and turning to your loyal institutional environment to catch the thief. Rules like this help people interact and exchange fairly. Whereas is still developing countries you only have predatory institutes to rely on. Increasing uncertainty. Not to be confused with risk as risk is measured. Uncertainty interferes with ability to plan for the future. Institutions in this case are good for millions of people engaged in complex interactions; additionally to enforcement. Enabling economics transactions to be put into gear locally and globally in communities.